Microwave Cooking: Safe, Efficient, and Nutritious?

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Microwave ovens are great for heating up leftovers, but what exactly happens to the food while it’s cooking?

Microwaves use electromagnetic waves to cook food. These waves pass through a channel called a magnetron and bounce back and forth inside the oven, hitting the food from different angles and cooking it. Microwaves cook food by converting electrical energy into heat energy.

In this article, I’ll explain how microwaves work and what they do to your food. Plus, I’ll share some tips on how to get the best results.

Microwave cooking

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How Microwaves Work Their Magic

Microwaves use electromagnetic waves to cook food. These waves are produced by an electric current that passes through a channel called a magnetron. The waves are then directed into the microwave oven’s interior, where they bounce around and forth, hitting the food from different angles.

How Microwaves Cook Food

Microwaves work by converting electrical energy into heat energy. When the waves hit the food, they cause the molecules inside to vibrate rapidly, producing heat. This heat is what cooks the food. Because microwaves penetrate the food, they cook it from the inside out, which means that the food is cooked more evenly than it would be in a conventional oven.

The Importance of Water Content

Water is an essential element when it comes to cooking in the microwave. Because microwaves work by heating the water molecules inside the food, foods with higher water content will cook faster and more effectively than those with lower water content. This means that foods like vegetables and soups will cook faster than foods like meat or dry foods like apples.

The Role of Size and Shape

The size and shape of the food you’re cooking also play a role in how it cooks in the microwave. Generally, smaller foods will cook faster than larger foods, and foods that are round or have straight edges will cook more evenly than those with irregular shapes. It’s important to be careful when cooking larger foods, as the edges may cook faster than the center, meaning you’ll need to rotate the dish to ensure even cooking.

The Power of the Microwave

The power of the microwave also plays a role in how long it takes to cook your food. Microwaves are measured in watts, and the higher the wattage, the faster your food will cook. Most microwaves have a power range between 600-1200 watts, with the highest wattage probably being the best for cooking food quickly and efficiently.

The Difference Between Microwaves and Conventional Ovens

Microwaves cook food differently than conventional ovens. While conventional ovens cook food by heating the air inside the oven, which then heats the food, microwaves cook food by penetrating the food and heating it from the inside out. This means that foods cooked in a microwave will generally cook faster than those cooked in a conventional oven.

The Best Way to Cook Different Foods

Different foods require different cooking times and power settings in the microwave. Here are some general guidelines:

  • Vegetables: Cook on high power for 3-5 minutes, depending on the type and size of the vegetable.
  • Meat: Cook on high power for a couple of minutes, then reduce the power to 50% and cook for a few more minutes, depending on the size and type of meat.
  • Soups and stews: Cook on high power for 3-5 minutes, then reduce the power to 50% and cook for a few more minutes, depending on the size of the dish.
  • Dry foods like apples: Cook on high power for a couple of minutes, then reduce the power to 50% and cook for a few more minutes, depending on the size of the apple.

Microwave Cooking and Nutrition: Understanding the Impact on Your Food

While microwave cooking is easy and fast, it can have an impact on the nutritional value of your food. Here are some things to keep in mind:

  • Microwaving vegetables can cause a loss of some nutrients, especially vitamin C. Steamed vegetables retain more of their nutritional value.
  • Some compounds in food may break down during microwaving, potentially reducing their nutritional value.
  • Excess heat can cause damage to certain nutrients, such as protein and antioxidants.

The Benefits of Microwave Cooking

Despite the potential impact on nutritional value, microwave cooking has its benefits:

  • It’s a quick and easy method of cooking that requires little to no added fat.
  • It’s a great way to prepare small portions of food.
  • Microwave ovens are designed to cook food evenly, which can result in better quality products.
  • The center of the food is cooked directly, while the edge is cooked by heat flow, which can result in a more evenly cooked dish.

How to Microwave Food Safely

To ensure that your food is cooked safely and effectively in the microwave, keep these tips in mind:

  • Use microwave-safe containers made of glass, ceramic, or plastic that are labeled as microwave-safe.
  • Avoid using steel or aluminum containers, as they can cause interference with the electromagnetic waves and harm the performance of the microwave.
  • Follow the cooking instructions carefully, as different types of food require different cooking times and power levels.
  • Clean your microwave regularly to avoid the buildup of food residue that can affect the performance of the microwave over time.

Efficiency of Microwave Ovens: How Much Energy Do They Really Save?

Microwave ovens are generally considered to be more energy-efficient than traditional ovens. This is because they use electricity to produce microwaves that directly heat the food, rather than heating the air around it. This means that the energy produced by the microwave is used more efficiently, resulting in less wasted energy.

Optimum Container and Food Size for Microwave Cooking

To get the best results from your microwave, it’s important to use the correct containers and food sizes. Here are some tips:

  • Use microwave-safe containers made of glass, plastic, or ceramic. Avoid using metal containers, as they can cause sparks and damage the oven.
  • Cut food into smaller portions to help it cook more evenly.
  • Cover food with a lid or microwave-safe plastic wrap to help trap steam and cook the food faster.
  • Add a small amount of water to foods that tend to dry out in the microwave, such as potatoes, to help them cook more evenly.

Power and Time Varies Depending on the Food

The power and time required to cook food in a microwave varies depending on the type and quantity of food. Here are some general guidelines:

  • Fresh foods generally require less time to cook than frozen foods.
  • Foods with a high water content, such as vegetables, cook faster than foods with a lower water content, such as meats.
  • Harder foods, such as potatoes, may require slightly longer cooking times than softer foods, such as vegetables.
  • Different models of microwave ovens offer different power ranges and price points. The more powerful the microwave, the faster it will cook food.

Benefits of Using a Microwave Oven

Using a microwave oven offers a number of benefits, including:

  • Faster cooking times, which can save time in the kitchen.
  • More energy-efficient cooking, which can save on electricity bills.
  • Smaller portions can be cooked more efficiently in a microwave, which can help with portion control.
  • Microwave cooking can help retain the natural state and nutritional content of foods, as it requires less added fats and oils.

Is It Safe to Cook Food in a Microwave Oven?

Microwave ovens are a common kitchen appliance used for rapid cooking of various foods. They work by emitting electromagnetic energy in the form of heat waves that penetrate the food and excite the water molecules inside it, causing the food to cook. However, the question of whether microwave ovens are safe for cooking food is a common concern among households.

The FDA Standards for Microwave Ovens

The FDA enforces safety standards for electronic devices, including microwave ovens, to ensure that their emissions do not pose a hazard to human health. The agency sets limits on the amount of radiation that can be leaked from these appliances, and manufacturers must comply with these standards before their products can be sold.

How Microwaves Affect Food and Bacteria

Microwave cooking can affect food in different ways, particularly when it comes to bacteria. While microwaves can destroy bacteria, they may not always do so evenly. This is because microwaves heat food from the inside out, and the center of the food may not get as hot as the outer layer. This is in contrast to conventional heating methods like frying, which heat food from the outside in and can destroy bacteria more effectively.

High Levels of Radiation in Microwaves

While microwave ovens are generally safe for cooking food, they do emit high levels of radiation. This radiation is not harmful to humans in small doses, but prolonged exposure to high levels of radiation can be dangerous. It is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions when using a microwave oven and to avoid standing too close to the appliance while it is in use.


So, cooking in the microwave isn’t as bad as people think. It can actually be pretty healthy and quick, and the food can taste just as good. Plus, you don’t have to heat up the whole house with the oven. 

So, don’t be afraid to use the microwave for cooking!

Check out our new cookbook

Bitemybun's family recipes with complete meal planner and recipe guide.

Try it out for free with Kindle Unlimited:

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Joost Nusselder, the founder of Bite My Bun is a content marketer, dad and loves trying out new food with Japanese food at the heart of his passion, and together with his team he's been creating in-depth blog articles since 2016 to help loyal readers with recipes and cooking tips.