Wheat Flour: A Comprehensive Guide to Varieties, Uses & More

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Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. More wheat flour is produced than any other flour. Wheat varieties are called “soft” or “weak” if gluten content is low, and are called “hard” or “strong” if they have high gluten content.

Hard flour, or bread flour, is high in gluten, with 12% to 14% gluten content, its dough has elastic toughness that holds its shape well once baked.

Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and thus results in a loaf with a finer, crumbly texture. Soft flour is usually divided into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour.

In this guide, I’ll explain everything you need to know about wheat flour, including what it is, how it’s made, and what it’s used for. Plus, I’ll share some cool facts about this useful ingredient.

What is wheat flour

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Wheat Flour: The Essential Guide to Understanding This Common Food

When we talk about wheat flour, we’re referring to a type of flour that is made by grinding wheat grains. Wheat is a type of grain that includes several varieties, such as red and hard wheat. The resulting flour is known for its rich fiber content and is slightly darker in color than other flours. Wheat flour is the main flour used in baking and is classified into different types based on the parts of the wheat grain that are used.

The Benefits of Wheat Flour

Wheat flour is a common food that is found in many different products. Here are some of the benefits of using wheat flour:

  • Wheat flour is loaded with fiber, which is essential for digestive health.
  • It contains essential fatty acids that our bodies need to function properly.
  • Wheat flour is a good source of protein, which is important for building and repairing tissues.
  • It is a versatile ingredient that can be used in a wide variety of recipes.

Storing Wheat Flour

To make sure that your wheat flour stays fresh and doesn’t go bad, it’s important to store it properly. Here are some helpful tips:

  • Store wheat flour in an airtight container to protect it from moisture and pests.
  • Keep it in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight.
  • Make sure to use your wheat flour within a reasonable amount of time, as it can go bad and cause foodborne illness.

The Differences Between Wheat Flours

While all wheat flours are made from the same basic ingredient, there are some differences between them that can affect the final product. Here are some of the main differences:

  • All-purpose flour is a good all-around flour that can be used in many different recipes.
  • Bread flour is ideal for making bread and other baked goods that require a strong gluten structure.
  • Whole wheat flour is higher in fiber and other nutrients than all-purpose flour.
  • Spelt flour is a good alternative to wheat flour for people who have gluten sensitivities.

Exploring the Different Varieties of Wheat Flour

When it comes to wheat flour, it’s important to understand the different types of wheat that are commonly used in making flour. The primary types of wheat include hard red wheat, hard white wheat, soft red wheat, and soft white wheat. Each type of wheat has a different protein content and gluten strength, which affects the flour’s function in recipes.

Examining the Different Flours

There are hundreds of different flours available, but wheat flour is the most common and widely used. Some of the most basic types of wheat flour include:

  • All-purpose flour: This is the most commonly used flour and is a medium-strength flour that can be used for a variety of recipes.
  • Bread flour: This flour has a higher protein content and gluten strength, making it ideal for making bread.
  • Cake flour: This flour has a lower protein content and is commonly used in making cakes and other baked goods.
  • Whole wheat flour: This flour is made from the entire wheat grain, including the bran and germ, and is higher in fiber and nutrients than white flour.

Understanding Flour Strength and Gluten Content

Flour strength and gluten content are key factors in determining the best flour for a particular recipe. The strength of flour refers to its ability to hold up under pressure, while gluten content refers to the amount of gluten in the flour. Gluten is a protein that gives bread its structure and chewiness.

  • Flour strength is measured using the “sedimentation test,” which measures the amount of gluten in the flour.
  • Gluten content is measured using the “gluten index,” which measures the elasticity of the gluten.

Enriched Flour and Its Uses

Enriched flour is flour that has been fortified with vitamins and minerals, such as iron and B vitamins. This type of flour is commonly used in making bread, pasta, and other baked goods. Some of the key uses of enriched flour include:

  • Making bread: Enriched flour is commonly used in making bread due to its high gluten content and strength.
  • Making pasta: Enriched flour is also commonly used in making pasta due to its ability to hold up under pressure.
  • Preventing diseases: Enriched flour is often fortified with iron and B vitamins, which can help prevent diseases such as anemia.

Using Wheat Flour in Recipes

Wheat flour is a staple ingredient in many recipes, from bread and pasta to cakes and cookies. Some tips for using wheat flour in recipes include:

  • Measuring accurately: It’s important to measure flour accurately to ensure the best results in your recipes.
  • Mixing well: When using wheat flour in recipes, it’s important to mix it well to ensure even distribution.
  • Experimenting with different types: Try using different types of wheat flour in your recipes to find the one that works best for you.

Flour Power: The Many Uses of Wheat Flour

Wheat flour is also handy for thickening sauces and coating foods for frying. Here are some tips:

  • Mixing flour with water: To start, mix flour with a little water to create a paste. Then, add the paste to your sauce or soup to thicken it up.
  • Replacing other flours: Wheat flour can be used in place of other flours to thicken sauces and gravies. Just keep in mind that wheat flour has a higher protein content than other flours, so it may require a little extra mixing to avoid clumps.
  • Coating foods for frying: Wheat flour is a great option for coating foods like chicken or fish before frying. The flour helps the food cook evenly and creates a nice, crispy texture.

How to Properly Store Wheat Flour

When it comes to storing wheat flour, the right place can make all the difference. You want to store your flour in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight. A pantry or cupboard is a great option, but make sure it’s not near any heat sources like the stove or oven.

Use an Airtight Container

Wheat flour is a grain, and like all grains, it can attract pests like weevils and moths. To prevent this, store your flour in an airtight container. This will also help keep your flour fresh for longer.

Choose the Darkest Place Possible

Light can cause wheat flour to go bad faster, so it’s important to store it in the darkest place possible. If you don’t have a dark pantry or cupboard, consider storing your flour in a paper bag inside an airtight container.

Check the Shelf Life

Wheat flour has a shelf life of about 6-8 months if stored properly. However, it’s always a good idea to check the expiration date on the bag of flour before you buy it. This will give you an idea of how long you can expect it to last.

Room Temperature is Best

While it’s important to keep your flour cool, you don’t want to store it in the refrigerator or freezer. This can cause condensation to form inside the container, which can lead to mold growth. Room temperature is the best option for storing wheat flour.

In summary, to properly store wheat flour:

  • Choose a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight
  • Use an airtight container to keep pests out
  • Choose the darkest place possible
  • Check the expiration date and shelf life
  • Store at room temperature

Flour Alternatives: When Wheat Flour Just Won’t Do

Sometimes, you may be looking for a flour substitute for a specific reason. For example, you may need a gluten-free option or want to add a different flavor profile to your baked goods. Whatever the reason, there are plenty of flour substitutes available that can work just as well as traditional wheat flour.

Flour Substitutes Available

Here are some of the most popular flour substitutes available:

  • Almond flour: This flour is high in fat and protein and works great in recipes that call for a lighter, richer flour. It’s also a great option for those following a low-carb or paleo diet.
  • Buckwheat flour: Despite its name, buckwheat is not related to wheat and is actually a seed. It has a nutty flavor and works well in pancakes, waffles, and other baked goods.
  • Rye flour: This flour has a darker color and denser texture than traditional wheat flour. It works well in bread and other baked goods that need a heartier texture.
  • Rice flour: This flour is made from ground rice and tends to be lighter and less rich than traditional wheat flour. It’s a great option for those with gluten sensitivities.
  • Cassava flour: This flour is made from the cassava root and has a similar texture to wheat flour. It’s a great option for those looking for a gluten-free option.

Examples of Flour Substitute Recipes

Here are some recipes that use flour substitutes:

  • Almond Flour Chocolate Chip Cookies: This recipe uses almond flour instead of traditional wheat flour for a nutty flavor and a gluten-free option.
  • Buckwheat Snickerdoodles: This recipe uses buckwheat flour for a heartier texture and a unique flavor.
  • Rye Bread: This recipe uses rye flour for a denser, earthier loaf.
  • Cassava Molasses Bread: This recipe uses cassava flour for a gluten-free option and molasses for a rich flavor.

Expert Insights

According to Marty Baldwin, a baking expert and author of “Baking Basics and Beyond,” some flour substitutes, such as almond flour, tend to be higher in fat and lower in carbs than traditional wheat flour. However, she notes that it’s important to keep in mind the amino acid profile of the flour substitute, as some may be absent in gluten-free flours. Blaine Moats, a chef and owner of Brie Passano’s Bakery, recommends using a mix of different flours to get the best results. He also notes that some flour substitutes, such as coconut flour, can be chalky if not used correctly.

Is Wheat Flour Actually Good for Your Health?

While refined white flour is widely used in food production, it is not considered to be as good for your health as whole wheat flour. Some of the negative effects of consuming refined white flour include:

  • Stripped components: The refining process removes the bran and germ components of the wheat kernel, which contain important vitamins and minerals.
  • High glycemic index: Refined white flour has a high glycemic index, which means that it can cause blood sugar levels to spike.
  • Decreased fiber content: The refining process removes the fiber content of the wheat kernel, which can lead to constipation and other digestive issues.


So there you have it- everything you need to know about wheat flour. 

Wheat flour is a great ingredient for baking and pretty versatile. You can use it for just about anything, from bread to cakes to cookies. It’s a good way to get some extra nutrients into your diet. 

So don’t be afraid to experiment with it!

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Joost Nusselder, the founder of Bite My Bun is a content marketer, dad and loves trying out new food with Japanese food at the heart of his passion, and together with his team he's been creating in-depth blog articles since 2016 to help loyal readers with recipes and cooking tips.